Smooth ballistics weapons: shot, reverse and advance

Smooth ballistics weapons

In a hunting situation, the density of the shot pattern, directly under the choke, decisive. Only a correct anticipation allows to hit the target.

After analyzing the development of the shot pattern, metro Subway, see what the relationships between it and the barrel of the shotgun are. The useful shot depends on the density of the shot pattern, which results, in practice, the number of pellets which are concentrated in the target area. Ballistic factors influencing this phenomenon are multiple and it is very important that the hunter knows its general principles to guide best choice regarding the different hunting situations.

Shot pattern and canyons

We have already demonstrated the great importance of strangulation or choke barrel; the higher the value, the greater the density of the shot pattern. It is also necessary to underline that, contrary to the view of many hunters, in this relationship the length of the barrel of the shotgun has no influence, but what is truly indicative is the kind of strangling the canyon.

Another determining element is the caliber; choke equals the size of the ellipse in which the pellets fall remains identical, but the amount of pellets is present in relation to the caliber cartridge. With a 12 gauge, for example, the shot pattern will have the same amplitude as that obtained with a bore 16, but the latter will be less dense.

In a comparison between different calibres, children get the same range (useful shot) than older only with a significant increase in the value of the choke, which will cause a very dense and restricted shot pattern, which requires a look fairly accurate (to occupy pellets very limited space).

The shot

When the trigger is pulled, the hammer head hits the firing pin, which, in turn, is folded on the cartridge piston; this action, occurring within a few milliseconds, causes the ignition of gunpowder. In the immediately successive stage, in the barrel a phenomenon called "pressure development", due to the release of gases, with strength, determine a sudden increase in pressure inside the barrel is checked.

The obstacles to this strong pressure (the taco, the weight of the leads and the sheath cartridge) are easily overcome and the pellets move through the barrel of the shotgun. During this tour other internal ballistic phenomena that can be synthesized in the expression "accelerated charge" without considering the friction, is directly proportional to the pressure are checked. The volumetric capacity increases and, at the same time, a rapid pressure drop occurs as the lead progresses. Further, when the leads out through the mouth of the gun, the sound wave caused by the expansion in the atmosphere gas is also released; it is the phenomenon known as "detonation".

The retrocess

The physical sensation that accompanies these phenomena is complex ballistic recoil, through which the shotgun download hunter shoulder all the kinetic energy that causes the explosion of the cartridge.

The load weight (30 to 40g) is a hundred times lower than the shotgun (3 to 4 kg). The same relationship, in general, is the subsisting between the strength of the load on the muzzle and retreat; that is, the latter is a hundred times lower than the pressure created on the opposite side of the gun.

Ballistic In this phenomenon, the weight of the gun and loading of lead determine the recoil force; in a heavy weapon, for example, the reverse is seen less.

Anyway, felt recoil is always subjective, ie, varies depending on how the gun is taken and depending on the physical shape of the shooter, but there is no doubt that a "lively" gunpowder always cause a larger drop which determines a less progressive gunpowder.

In semi-automatic guns, the recoil is always lower than in other types of guns, since the spring system and the same mobility of the internal parts of the weapon have a buffer function; on weapons that work with gases making, the proportioning valve, which discharges excess gas abroad, notably lightens the recoil.

From the point of ballistic view, the recoil is divided into two phases: first, very short, which shotgun is driven backwards a few millimeters, and a second phase in which the weapon continues movement by inertia, coinciding with the removal of lead from the canyon.

The uprising

This phenomenon is closely related to the reversal: The axis of the gun and cannon, under the effect of impulse that receives the weapon at the time of the explosion of gunpowder, rises up.

This can have a significant impact on the shot, although much of the pellets are already out of the barrel at the time that lifting occurs. Anyway, this is a movement from the ideal axis shooting. In the overlay it manifested upward, while in parallel or juxtaposed is a side effect due to the different position of the guns. But if the effect of lifting does not hurt much at first shot (lead and travels toward the target), it is felt, when it is running- at the time of the second shot.


Ballistics weapons smooth sole objective obviously hit the target. The knowledge of the elements that influence it serves for the buckshot find the piece that moves quickly, ie, to calculate in a split second early enough.

If the gun is placed with the elements shaft with sights on the target, the shot is made at that time achieved project the shot pattern of buckshot to that very point; but adding all times and human -mecánicos necessary for the shot, lead tardy respect to the passage of the piece by a certain point.

Reaching a moving target is not easy, but possible with the right advance

Consequently, by an instinctive calculation, it must direct the shot pattern before the point where it is presumed that the target will be when lead comes. This calculation is complicated and full of variants: the reaction time brain-trigger times on the cartridge and eject the lead, travel times shotgun-white distance, and so on; and all this depending on the speed and direction of the target.

In practice, throwing the right point is an automatic and instinctive factor; with a minimum of experience and after some inevitable errors, it is achieved spontaneously firing correctly, giving just ahead without stopping the movement of the gun. It is impossible to provide safe formulas, because every hunting situation and each type of piece are different, so are indispensable experience and quick reflexes.